Education in Greece

Education in Greece
Greece education logo.png
Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs
Minister Kostas Gabroglou
National education budget (2010)
Budget

12,08 billion (public)

4% of GDP1
General details
Primary languages Greek
Literacy (2014)
Total 98%
Male 99%
Female 97%
Enrollment
Total 1,426,175
Primary 786,025 2
Secondary 360,248 3
Post secondary 276,902 4

The Greek educational system is mainly divided into three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary, with an additional post-secondary level providing vocational training. Primary education is divided into kindergarten lasting one or two years, and primary school spanning six years (ages 6 to 12). Secondary education comprises two stages: Gymnasio (variously translated as Middle or Junior High School), a three-year school, after which students can attend Lykeion or Vocational lykeion. Higher Tertiary education is provided by Universities, Technological Universities (T.E.I.) and Academies which primarily cater for the military and the clergy. Undergraduate courses typically last 4 years (5 in polytechnics and some technical/art schools, and 6 in medical schools), postgraduate (MSc level) courses last from 1 to 2 years and doctorates (PhD level) from 3 to 6 years.

All levels are overseen by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. The Ministry exercises centralized control over state schools, by prescribing the curriculum, appointing staff and controlling funding. Private schools also fall under the mandate of the Ministry, which exercises supervisory control over them. At a regional level, the supervisory role of the Ministry is exercised through Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education, and Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education operate in every Prefecture. Tertiary institutions are nominally autonomous, but the Ministry is responsible for their funding, and the distribution of students to undergraduate courses. Currently the Greek government only recognises the degree programmes offered by the state-run universities although there are several private universities and colleges offering degree programmes that are validated and overseen by American, British and other European universities. The Greek government is pressured to recognise these overseas programmes.

All levels of education are catered for by both private and public schools. State-run schools and universities do not charge tuition fees and textbooks are provided free to all students, although, from 2011 onwards, there has been a noticeable shortage of new textbooks, forcing students to either buy stock books from bookshops, or participate in parent-teacher association-run book trades. There are also a number of private tutorial schools, colleges and universities operating alongside the state education and providing supplementary tuition. These parallel schools (Greek: φροντιστήριο, frontistirio (singular)) provide foreign language tuition, supplementary lessons for weak students as well as exam preparation courses for the competitive Panhellenic national examinations. Most of the students typically attend such classes (and examinations) at the tutors schools in the afternoon and evening in addition to their normal schooling.

The education system has been receiving negative comments over the years by the Greek people. Many argue that the system lags behind and shows weaknesses compared to the systems of other European countries.

Primary education

The public school of Astros, built in 1915.

Before the Elementary school, kids must attend the Kindergarten from age 5 to 6 before moving to the Elementary School.Elementary schools are called "Dimotiko" (demotic, meaning municipal), a carryover term from a time when such schools were run by local communities. The name remains although it has been obsolete for decades. In the first two years pupils are not officially graded, and parents obtain feedback about their performance via oral communications with teachers. Grading begins in Year 3, and written exams are introduced in Year 5. Graduating from one year to the next is automatic, and pupils with deficient performance are given remedial tutoring. Years are called "classes", from first to sixth:

  • 1st Year (Πρώτη δημοτικού): age 6 to 7
  • 2nd Year (Δευτέρα δημοτικού): age 7 to 8
  • 3rd Year (Τρίτη δημοτικού): age 8 to 9
  • 4th Year (Τετάρτη δημοτικού): age 9 to 10
  • 5th Year (Πέμπτη δημοτικού): age 10 to 11
  • 6th Year (Έκτη δημοτικού): age 11 to 12

A normal school-day starts at 8.15 and finishes in 13.15. The classes last between 45 and 90 minutes with 3 breaks. The school year always starts on September 11 and ends on June 15. The students have summer vacation (about 3 months), Christmas vacation (2 weeks) and Easter vacation (2 weeks). Furthermore, students take usually another four days off in order to celebrate their two national holidays (28/10 and 25/3). From December of 2017 with a Presidential decree, the city of Aigio has and a third national holiday in 26/1 starting from January 2018. Only the schools of this city are closed in this day in the entire country.

The subjects for: Πρώτη δημοτικού και Δευτέρα δημοτικού /1st Grade and 2nd Grade of Primary school (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Modern Greek language (9 hours/week)
  • Mathematics (5 hours/week)
  • Environmental Studies (4 hours/week)
  • English language (1 hour/week)
  • Music (1 hour/week)
  • Theatrical Education (1 hour/week)
  • Art (2 hours/week)
  • Physical Education (3 hours/week)
  • Flexible Zone (3 hours/week)
  • Computer studies (1 hour/week)

Τρίτη δημοτικού και Τετάρτη δημοτικού/3rd Grade and 4th Grade of Primary school (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Modern Greek language (8 hours/week)
  • Mathematics (4 hours/week)
  • Environmental Studies (2 hours/week)
  • English language (3 hours/week)
  • Music (1 hour/week)
  • Theatrical Education (1 hour/week)
  • Art (1 hour/week)
  • Physical Education (3 hours/week)
  • Flexible Zone (2 hours/week)
  • Computer studies (1 hour/week)
  • Religion (2 hours/week)
  • History (2 hours/week)

Πέμπτη δημοτικού και Έκτη δημοτικού/5th and 6th Grade of Primary School (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Modern Greek language (7 hours/week)
  • Mathematics (4 hours/week)
  • Geography (2 hours/week)
  • English language (3 hours/week)
  • Music (1 hour/week)
  • Social & Political Studies (1 hour/week)
  • Art (1 hour/week)
  • Physical Education (2 hours/week)
  • Physics (3 hours/week)
  • Computer studies (1 hour/week)
  • Religion (1 hour/week)
  • History (2 hours/week)
  • 2nd Foreign Language (French or German) (2 hours/week)

(The classes a week for a subject vary from the teacher who teaches)


Grading System:

  • 1st Year: no grades
  • 2nd Year: no grades
  • 3rd Year: A-D
  • 4th Year: A-D
  • 5th Year: 1-10
  • 6th Year: 1-10

Enrollment to the next tier of compulsory education, the Gymnasium, is automatic.

Secondary education

View of the Jewish school, Thessaloniki

Γυμνάσιο (Gymnasium - Middle School) (compulsory education)

  • Πρώτη Γυμνασίου / 1st grade, age 12 to 13
  • Δευτέρα Γυμνασίου / 2nd grade, age 13 to 14
  • Τρίτη Γυμνασίου / 3rd grade, age 14 to 15

Starts on September 11 and ends on early June before the first day of the Panhellenic exams. The lessons end in 31 May so that the students will be able to study for their examinations in early June. The classes start at 8.15 and end from 13.55 to 14.15 according to the type of school. Classes last from 30 min. to 45 min. and there are breaks of 10 and 5 minutes between them.The students have summer vacation (about 3 months), Christmas vacation (2 weeks) and Easter vacation (2 weeks). Furthermore, students take usually another four days off in order to celebrate their two national holidays (28/10 and 25/3). From December of 2017 with a Presidential decree, the city of Aigio has and a third national holiday in 26/1 starting from January 2018. Only the schools of this city are closed in this day in the entire country. There are 6 types of gymnasiums in Greece:

  1. General Gymnasium (entering there from the primary school is automatic)
  2. Athletic Gymnasium (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on a sport like football, basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, polo, swimming etc.)
  3. Musical Gymnasium (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on a musical instrument)
  4. Art Gymnasium (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on either arts, dance, or theater)
  5. Experimental Gymnasium (to enter this type of schools students must pass certain exams on Maths, Science, Reading Comprehension and Writing [the last two are written as one])
  6. Church Gymnasium

Today Athletic Gymnasiums don't exist.

The subjects for:

1. Πρώτη Γυμνασίου/1st Grade of Gymnasium (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Modern Greek language (3 hours/week)
  • Modern Greek literature (2 hours/week)
  • Ancient Greek language (2 hours/week)
  • Ancient Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
  • Mathematics (4 classes/week) (Algebra 2 hours/week and Geometry 2 hours/week)
  • Physics (1 hour/week)
  • Biology (1 hour/week)
  • Geography (1 hour/week)
  • History (2 hours/week)
  • Religion (2 hours/week)
  • English language (2 hours/week)
  • 2nd foreign language (French or German) (2 hours/week)
  • Technology (1 hour/week)
  • Computer studies (1 hour/week)
  • Music (1 hour/week)
  • Art (1 hour/week)
  • Physical education (2 hours/week)
  • Home economics (2 hours/week)

2. Δευτέρα Γυμνασίου/2nd Grade of Gymnasium (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Modern Greek Language (2 hours/week)
  • Modern Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
  • Ancient Greek Language (2 hours/week)
  • Ancient Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
  • Mathematics (4 hours/week) (Algebra 2 classes/week and Geometry 2 classes/week)
  • Physics (2 hours/week)
  • Chemistry (1 hour/week)
  • Biology (1 hour/week)
  • Geography (2 hours/week)
  • History (2 hours/week)
  • Religion (2 hours/week)
  • English Language (2 hours/week)
  • 2nd Foreign Language (French or German) (2 hours/week)
  • Technology (1 hour/week)
  • Computer Studies (1 hour/week)
  • Music (1 hour/week)
  • Art (1 hour/week)
  • Physical Education (2 hours/week)

3. Τρίτη Γυμνασίου/3rd Grade of Gymnasium (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Religion (2 hours/week)
  • Ancient Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
  • Ancient Greek Language (2 hours/week)
  • Modern Greek Language (2 hours/week)
  • Modern Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
  • History (2 hours/week)
  • Social & Political Studies (2 hours/week)
  • English Language (2 hours/week)
  • 2nd Foreign Language (French or German) (2 hours/week)
  • Mathematics (4 hours/week)
  • Physics (2 hours/week)
  • Chemistry (1 hour/week)
  • Biology (1 hours/week)
  • Physical Education (2 hours/week)
  • Music (1 hour/week)
  • Art (1 hour/week)
  • Computer Studies (1 hour/week)
  • Technology (1 hour/week)

The lessons that the students will be examinated in early June are Modern Greek Language/Modern Greek Literature, History, Mathematics and Physics.The duration for every exam is 2 hours except Modern Greek Language/Modern Greek Literature which is 3 hours.

Λύκειο (Lyceum - High School)

  • Πρώτη Λυκείου / 1st grade, age 15 to 16
  • Δευτέρα Λυκείου / 2nd grade, age 16 to 17
  • Τρίτη Λυκείου / 3rd grade, age 17 to 18

Starts on September 11 and ends on 15 June. The lessons end in late May so that the students will be able to study for their examinations in June. The classes start at 8.20 and end from 13.55 to 14.20 according to the type of school. Classes last from 35 min. to 45 min. and there are breaks of 10 and 5 minutes between them.The students have summer vacation (about 3 months), Christmas vacation (2 weeks) and Easter vacation (2 weeks). Furthermore, students take usually another four days off in order to celebrate their two national holidays (28/10 and 25/3). From December of 2017 with a Presidential decree, the city of Aigio has and a third national holiday in 26/1 starting from January 2018. Only the schools of this city are closed in this day in the entire country. There are 7 types of lyceums in Greece:

  1. General Lyceum
  2. Vocational Lyceum
  3. Athletic Lyceum (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on a sport like football, basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, polo, swimming etc.)
  4. Musical Lyceum (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on a musical instrument)
  5. Art Lyceum (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on either arts, dance, or theater)
  6. Experimental Lyceum (to enter this type of schools students must pass certain exams on Mathematics, Science, Reading Comprehension and Writing [the last two are written as one])
  7. Church Lyceum

Γενικό Λύκειο (General Lyceum- General High School)

The subjects for:

1. Πρώτη Γενικού Λυκείου/1st Grade of General Lyceum (The curriculum is based on the 2013 curriculum, for the school season 2014-2015):

  • Subjects of General Education
  Ancient Greek  (5 hours/week)
  Modern Greek Language (2 hours/week)
  Modern Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
  Algebra (3 hours/week)
  Geometry (2 hours/week)
  Physics (2 hours/week)
  Chemistry (2 hours/week)
  Biology (2 hours/week)
  History (2 hours/week)
  Political Studies (3 hours/week)
  Religion (2 hours/week)
  Project (2 hours/week)
  Foreign Language (English or French or German) (2 hours/week)
  Physical Education (2 hours/week)
  • Subjects of selection (Every student can select 1 subject)
  Applications of Computer Science 
  Geology and Management of Natural Resources 
  Greek and European Culture 
  Art Education 
  (all 2 hours/week)

2. Δευτέρα Γενικού Λυκείου/2nd Grade of General Lyceum (The curriculum is based on the 2013 curriculum, for the school season 2014-2015):

  • Subjects of General Education
 Ancient Greek (2 hour/week)
 Modern Greek Language (2 hours/week)
 Modern Greek Literature (2 hours/week)
 Algebra (3 hours/week)
 Geometry (2 hours/week)
 Physics (2 hours/week)
 Chemistry (2 hours/week)
 Biology (2 hours/week)
 Introduction to the Principles of Science of Computers (1 hour/week)
 History (2 hours/week)
 Philosophy (2 hours/week)
 Political Education (2 hours/week)
 Religion (2 hours/week)
 Project (1 hour/week)
 Foreign Language (English or French or German) (2 hours/week)
 Physical Education (1 hour/week)

The students can choose 1 of the 2 Orientation Groups:

  • Subjects of the Humanities Orientation Group
  Ancient Greek Language and Literature (3 hours/week)
  Basic Principles of Social Science (2 hours/week)
  • Subjects of the Sciences Orientation Group
  Physics (3 hours/week)
  Mathematics (2 hours/week)

3. Τρίτη Γενικού Λυκείου/3rd Grade of General Lyceum (The curriculum is based on the 2015 curriculum, for the school season 2015-2016):

  • Subjects of General Education
  Religion (1 hour/week)
  Foreign Language (English or French or German) (2 hours/week)
  Physical Education (2 hours/week)
  History (2 hours/week)
  Greek Language (2 hours/week)
  Greek Literature (1 hour/week)
  Biology (2 hours/week)
  Mathematics and Statistics (2 hours/week)
  History of Social Sciences (1 hour/week)
  • Subjects for selection (Every student can select 1 subject)
  2nd Foreign Language 
  Drawing (Free or Linear)
  History of Art
  Business Management and Organization 
  (all 2 hours/week)  
 

The students can choose 1 of the 3 Orientation Groups:

  • Subjects of the Humanities Orientation Group:
  Ancient Greek Language (5 hours/week)
  Latin (3 hours/week)
  History (3 hours/week)
  Literature(2 hours/week)
  Sociology (2 hours/week)
  • Subjects of the Economical and Computer Studies Orientation Group:
  Mathematics (5 hours/week)
  Economy (3 hours/week)
  Computers (2 hours/week)
  History (3 hours/week)
  Sociology (2 hours/week)

  • Subjects of the Science Studies Orientation Group:
  Mathematics (5 hours/week)
  Biology (2 hours/week)
  Physics (3 hours/week)
  Chemistry (3 hours/week)
  Computers (2 hours/week)

As mentioned above, the students must take the Panhellenic national Examinations in order to proceed to the Higher Tertiary education. These exams are held after the students have received their Apolytirion. The students pass into a specific Higher Educational Institute based on the Orientation and Group chosen.Starting from 2018, the students of the 3rd grade will give 4 subjects for the school exams because of the Panhellenic Exams. These subjects are Greek Language, History, Mathematics and Biology.The duration for every exam is 2 hours. The students of 1st and 2nd grades, will give all the theory subjects.

Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (ΕΠΑ.Λ.) (Vocational Lyceum- Vocational High School)

The subjects for:

1. Πρώτη Επαγγελματικού Λυκείου/1st Grade of Vocational Lyceum (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Subjects of General Education
  Modern Greek Language (4 hours/week)
  Algebra (3 hours/week)
  Geometry (1 hours/week)
  Physics (2 hours/week)
  Chemistry (1 hour/week)
  Biology (1 hour/week)
  History (1 hour/week)
  Political Studies (2 hours/week)
  Religion (1 hour/week)
  English Language (2 hours/week)
  Physical Education (2 hours/week)
  Applications of Computer Science (2 hours/week)
  • Subjects of Orientation
  Project (2 hours/week)
  School Professional Orientation (2 hours/week)
  Creative Activities Zone (3 hours/week)
  • Subjects of selection (Every student can select 3 subjects):
  Health Education
  Principles of Linear and Architectural Design
  Principles of Electrical Engineering and Electronics
  Principles of Engineering 
  Principles of Economy
  Basic Principles of Composition
  Agriculture and Sustainable Development 
  Nautical Art 
  (all 2 hours/week)

2. Δευτέρα Επαγγελματικού Λυκείου/2nd Grade of Vocational Lyceum (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Subjects of General Education
 Modern Greek Language (3 hours/week)
 Algebra (2 hours/week)
 Geometry (1 hours/week)
 Physics (1 hour/week)
 Chemistry (1 hour/week)
 Introduction to the Principles of Science of Computers (1 hour/week)
 Religion (1 hour/week)
 English Language (1 hour/week)
 Physical Education (1 hour/week)

The students can choose 1 of the 9 Sectors:

  • Sector of Αgriculture, Food and Environment
  Principles of Rural Development (2 hours Theory/week)
  Environment and Agriculture (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Plant Production (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Animal Production (2 hours Theory+1 hour Laboratory/week)
  Food Technology (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Principles of Architectural Land Use (1 hour Theory+1 hour Laboratory/week)
  Agricultural Plant Components and Agricultural Machinery (2 hours Theory+1 hour Laboratory/week)
  English of Sector (1 hour Theory/week)
  • Sector of Administration and Economy
  Principles of Accounting (3 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Introduction to Marketing (2 hours Theory/week)
  Tourism Theory and Applications (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Introduction to Logistics (2 hours Theory/week)
  Financial Transactions-Spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel) (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Legal Elements (Urban-Commercial-Labor-Tourist) (4 hours Theory/week)
  Economical Mathematics and Statistics (2 hours Theory/week)
  English of Sector (2 hours Theory/week)
  • Sector of Structural Works, Structural Environment and Architectural Design
  Building Plan (4 hours Design/week)
  Topography (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Site Plan-Digital Cartography (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Building Projects and Building Materials (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Design of Building Projects using Computer (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Structured Environment and Urban Planning Applications (2 hours Theory/week)
  English of Sector (1 hour Theory/week)
  • Sector of Applied Arts
  Free Drawing (4 hours Design/week)
  Linear Drawing (3 hours Design/week)
  History of Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Composition (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Applied Arts using Computer (5 hours Laboratory/week)

Special Laboratory Subject (Students can select 1 Laboratory Subject):

  Photo and Electronic Image Editing 
  Textile Technology
  Engraving-Plastic Laboratory
  (all 5 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation
  Electrotechnics (2 hours Theory+2 hours laboratory/week)
  Internal Electrical Installations (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Electrical-Electronic Design (2 hours Laboratory [with computer] or Design/week)
  Introduction to Computer Systems and Communication Networks (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Automation, Sensors and Basic Digital Electronics (1 hour Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Basic Electronics (1 hour Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Sector (1 hour Theory/week)
  • Sector of Engineering
  Technical Thermodynamic Data-Applications (3 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Engineering-Strength of Materials (2 hours Theory/week)
  Design and Description of Engine Parts (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Mechanical Engineering Technology-Applications (2 hours theory+5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Basic Electrical Engineering and Applications (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Sector (1 hour Theory/week)
  • Sector of Information Technology
  Principles of Computer Programming (1 hour Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Hardware and Computer Networks (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Basic IT Issues (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Operating Systems and Security of Information Systems (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Design and Development of Websites (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Technical Issues of Sales and Specifications of Hardware and Software (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Sector (1 hour Theory/week)
  • Sector of Health-Providence and Well-Being
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  First Aid (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Th9eory/week)
  Interpersonal Relationships (2 hours Theory/week)
  Working Environment of Sector (2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  English of Sector (2 hours Theory/week)
  Special Subject A
  Special Subject B

Special Subjects (Students can Select 2 Subjects):

  Microbiology (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Nursing (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Creative Employment in Pre-School Age (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Contemporary Aesthetic (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Introduction to Physical Therapy (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Basic Hairdressing Applications (5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Dental Technicians (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Pharmaceutical Technology (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Radiotelegraphy (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Shipping Professionals
  Navigation-Nautical Meteorology (3 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Electric Machines (2 hours Theory/week)
  Shipbuilding Elements-Ship Stability-Principles of Propulsion (2 hours Theory/week)
  Navy English (2 hours Theory/week)
  Naval Engineering-Measurements-Constructions-Maintenance (3 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Mechanical Components-Shipbuilding Plan (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Bridge-Engine Room Control Systems (1 hour Theory/week)
  Human Relationships-Ship Management (1 hour Theory/week)

3. Τρίτη Επαγγελματικού Λυκείου/3rd Grade of Vocational Lyceum (The curriculum is based on the 2016 curriculum, for the school season 2016-2017):

  • Subjects of General Education
 Modern Greek Language (3 hours/week)
 Algebra (2 hours/week)
 Geometry (1 hours/week)
 Physics (2 hours/week)
 Chemistry (1 hour/week)
 Introduction to the Principles of Science of Computers (1 hour/week)
 English Language (1 hour/week)
 Physical Education (1 hour/week)
 

According to the Sector that the students selected in the 2nd grade, the students can choose 1 specialty accordingly with the number of the Sector that the students selected in the 2nd grade:

  • Sector of Αgriculture, Food and Environment
 * Plant Production Technician  
  Modern Agricultural Enterprises (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organic Agriculture (3 hours Theory/week)
  Arboriculture-Viticulture (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Large Growing Plants-Horticultural Cultures (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Crop Irrigation (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Plant Protection (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Animal Production Technician
  Modern Agricultural Enterprises (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organic Agriculture (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Farm Animals Diet (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Breeding of Farm Animals (3 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Aquaculture (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Beekeeping-Sericulture (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Food and Drink Technology Technician
  Modern Agricultural Enterprises (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organic Agriculture (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Principles of Food Processing (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Processing of Plant Products (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Processing of Animal Products (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Food Safety (2 hours Theory+1 hour Laboratory/week)
 * Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Technician 
  Modern Agricultural Enterprises (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organic Agriculture (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Flowering Plants (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Applications of Irrigation Networks in Gardening (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Planning of Plant Works (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)  
  Maintenance of Kinematic Applications (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)  
  • Sector of Administration and Economy
 * Administrator and Financial Officer
  Principles of Economic Theory (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organization and Administration (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Modern Office Environment (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Tax Practice (2 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Logistical Applications (5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Communication and Public Relations (2 hours Theory/week)
 * Tourism Business Employee
  Principles of Economic Theory (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organization and Administration (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Organization and Operation of Tourist Enterprises (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Organization and Operation of Hotel Businesses (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Tourism Geography (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Applications in Tourism (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Specialty (2 hours Theory/week)
  French Language or German Language (2 hours Theory/week)
 * Marketing and Advertising Employee
  Principles of Economic Theory (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organization and Administration (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Modern Office Environment (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Advertising (Introduction, Creation and Display) (2 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Communication and Public Relations (2 hours Theory/week)
  Marketing Applications (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Logistical Applications (2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Warehouse and Supply System Employee
  Principles of Economic Theory (3 hours Theory/week)
  Principles of Organization and Administration (3 hours Theory/week)
  Warehouse Organization and Management (3 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Organization and Management of Transport (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Logistics Applications (3 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Logistical Applications (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Structural Works, Structural Environment and Architectural Design
 * Structural Engineer and Geoinformatics 
  Architectural Design (4 hours Design/week) 
  Building (3 hours Theory/week)
  Civil Engineering and Infrastructure Project (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Applications of Geoinformatics in Technical Projects (5 Hours laboratory/week)
  Organization of Technical Works (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Design of Building Projects using Computer (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Applied Arts
 * Graphic Arts
  History of Contemporary Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Free Plan-Color (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Graphic Applications (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Printing Technology (1 hour Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Digital Design of Forms (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Literature (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Specialty (1 hour Theory/week)
 * Silverware
  History of Contemporary Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Handmade Jewelry Workshop (9 hours Laboratory/week)
  Reproduction Jewelry Lab - Enamel (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Jewelery Design (3 hours Design/week)
  Laboratory of Plastics - Metalloplasty (3 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Maintenance of Art - Rehabilitation Works
  History of Contemporary Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Basic Techniques for the Maintenance of Art Works (7 hours Laboratory/week)
  Cultural Heritage Protection (2 hours Theory/week)
  Copy of Works of Art (5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Design Documentation of Art Works (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Specialty (1 hour Theory/week)

 * Design and Production of Clothing
  History of Contemporary Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Cutting Pattern Technology (Patron) (5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Electronic Design of Industrial Product (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Textile Technology and Clothes Collection Organization (3 hours Theory/week)
  Quality Control of Fabric (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Clothing Production Technology (4 hours Laboratory/week)

 * Design-Interior Decorations
  History of Contemporary Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Free Plan-Color (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Digital Design (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Interior design (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Decorative Composition-3D Model (6 hours Laboratory/week)
  English of Specialty (2 hours Theory/week)
 * Furnishings - Wood Sculpture
  History of Contemporary Art (3 hours Theory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Wooden Constructions (1 hour Theory+5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Furniture Connections-Wood Sculpture (1 hour Theory+5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Wood Technology-Measurements (2 hours Theory/week)
  Linear Drawing (2 hours Design/week)
  Free Drawing (2 hours Design/week)
  • Sector of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation
 * Technician of Electronics and Computing Systems, Installations, Networks and Telecommunications
  Digital Systems (3 hours Theory/week)
  Computer Networks (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Applied Electronics-Construction (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Network Installation and Management-Maintenance of Computing Systems (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Control and Security Systems (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Telecommunications-Telematics (3 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Robotics (3 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Audio and Video Signal Processing (2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Technician of Electrical Systems, Installations and Networks
  Electrotechnics (3 hours Theory/week)
  Electric Machines (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Electrical Installations (2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Laboratory of Electrotechnics - Electrical Machines (2 hours Laboratory/week)  
  Programmable Logic Automation (2 hours Theory/week)
 * Automation Technician 
  Electrotechnics (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Digital Systems (3 hours Theory/week)
  Laboratory of Electronic Systems (6 hours Laboratory/week)
  Power Electronics (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Automatic Control System-Programmable Auditors (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Mechatronics (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  • Sector of Engineering
 * Mechanical Engineering and Construction Engineer
  Mechanical Elements (3 hours Theory/week)  
  Central Heating Design Elements (3 hours Theory/week)   
  Machining Technology-Machine Tools (2 hours Theory+6 hours Laboratory/week)
  Elevators-Lifting Machines (2 hours Theory/week)
  Cooling-Air Conditioning Elements (2 hours Theory+5 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Technician of Thermal and Hydraulic Installations and Technology of Oil and Natural Gas
  Mechanical Elements (3 hours Theory/week)  
  Central Heating Design Elements (3 hours Theory/week)   
  Maintenance and Repair of Combustion Plants for Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Water Supply-Drainage (1 hour Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Construction and Operation of Central Heating (1 hour Theory+5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Specialty Plan (2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Ventilation and Air Conditioning Cooling Technician
  Mechanical Elements (3 hours Theory/week)  
  Cooling-Air Conditioning Elements (3 hours Theory+5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Air Conditioning Facilities (3 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Control Systems, Regulation and Automation of Cooling and Air Conditioning Installations (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Mechanical Design of Cooling and Air Conditioning Installations (2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Vehicle Technician
  Mechanical Elements (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Internal Combustion Engines (3 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Car Systems (3 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Control and Diagnostic Technology (2 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Technical Aircraft Component Engineer
  Mechanical Elements (3 hours Theory/week) 
  Aircraft Engines (3 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Aircraft Structure and Systems (3 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Aircraft Maintenance Procedures (2 hours Theory)
  Aircraft Technology (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Information Technology
 * IT Application Technician
  Computer Programming (3 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Computer Networks (3 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Information Systems in Enterprises and Organizations (2 hours Theory/week)
  Database Management Systems and their Internet Applications (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Special Topics in Computer Programming (4 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Design and Development of Internet Applications (3 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Computer Engineer and Computer Networks Technician
  Computer Programming (3 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Computer Networks (3 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Information Systems in Enterprises and Organizations (2 hours Theory/week)
  Installation, Management and Maintenance of Computing Systems (4 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Special Topics in Hardware and Computer Networks (4 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Technical Support for Computing Systems and Network Infrastructure (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Health-Providence and Well-Being
 * Nurse's Assistant
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Nursing (2 hours Theory+10 hours Laboratory/week)
  Elements of Pathology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Surgery-Surgery Technique (1 hour Theory+1 hour Laboratory/week)
  Elements of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2 hours Theory/week) 
 * Assistant of Medical-Biological Laboratories
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Microbiology (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Hematology (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Clinical Biochemistry (1 hour Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Immunology (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Assistant Nursing Home 
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Pedagogical Environment of Nursery Station (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Infant Care (2 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Elements of General and Evolutionary Psychology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Creative Employment in Preschool Age (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Muscle-Kinetic Education (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Preschool Age Literature (2 hours Theory/week) 
 * Physiotherapist's Assistant
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Kinesiology (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Physical Therapy (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Practical Physiotherapy (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Malachi (2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Physical Media and Application (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Assistant Dental Technician
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Organization-Equipment-Materials for Dental Laboratory (2 hours Theory/week) 
  Dentistry (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Real Prostatetics (1 hour Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Real Prosthetic and Porcelain (2 hours Theory+4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Elements of Orthodontics (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Assistant of Radiology Laboratories
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Radiation Protection (2 hours Theory/week)
  New Imaging Methods (3 hours Theory/week)
  Radiotechnology (1 hour Theory+8 hours Laboratory/week)
  Radianthonic (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Professional Ethics (1 hour Theory/week)
 * Pharmacy Assistant
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Prescription-Legislation-Pharmacy Books (2 hours Theory/week)
  Pharmaceutical Technology (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Cosmetology (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Pharmacognostic Data (2 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Pharmacology-Toxicology (6 hours Theory/week)
 * Aesthetic Art
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Makeup (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Spa and Bath Therapy (1 hour Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Modern Aesthetics (1 hour Theory+6 hours Laboratory/week)
  Aesthetic Edge-Onyxoplasty (3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Cosmetology-Technology of Materials (2 hours Theory/week)
 * Hairdressing Art
  Anatomy-Physiology (3 hours Theory/week)
  Hygiene (2 hours Theory/week)
  Hair Hygiene Hair Head-Toxicology-Dermatology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Laboratory of Technical Works (5 hours Laboratory/week)
  Artistic Hairstyles (4 hours Laboratory/week)
  Material Technology (2 hours Theory/week)
  Basic Hairdressing Applications (5 hours Laboratory/week)
  • Sector of Shipping Professionals
 * Captain of Merchant Navy
  Navigation (3 hours Theory/week)
  Maritime Law-International Regulations in Shipping (3 hours Theory/week)
  Stability-Carriage of Loads (2 hours Theory/week)
  Observance of Prison Bridge-International Conflict Avoidance Regulations (ICAR) (3 hours Theory/week)
  Nautical English (2 hours Theory/week)
  Naval Electronic Instruments-Naval Communications-ECDIS Electronic Chart Systems (2 hours Theory+3 hours Laboratory/week)
  Navigational Impressions (5 hours Laboratory/week)
 * Engineer of Merchant Navy
  Naval Engines (3 hours Theory/week)
  Maritime Law-International Regulations in Shipping (3 hours Theory/week)
  Auxiliary Machines-Networks-Ship Cooling and Air Conditioning Installations (4 hours Theory+2 hours Laboratory/week)
  Electrical Machines-Ship Electrical Installations (2 hours Theory/week)
  Nautical English (2 hours Theory/week)
  Mechanical Ship Constructions - Mechanical Design using Computer (5 hours Laboratory/week) 
  Keeping Prison Machine Room (2 hours Theory/week)

As mentioned above, the students must take the Panhellenic national Examinations in order to proceed to the Higher Tertiary education. These exams are held after the students have received their Apolytirion which is same with the General's Lyceum and their level 4 Certificate. The students pass into a specific Higher Educational Institute based on the Orientation and Group chosen.Starting from 2018, the students of the 3rd grade will give 2 subjects of general education and all the theory subjects of their specialty for the school exams because of the Panhellenic Exams. If some students don't want to continue into tertiary education, they can select the "apprenticeship" to upgrade their certificate to level 5.

Private schools

Arsakeio School of Athens, 1867

There is a wide range of private schools in Greece. 6% of students who attend compulsory education (the highest percent in the European Union) study in Private Schools. Tuition fees start from €1,500 to €13,000 according to the school and the year.

School elections

From the fifth year of the primary school to the third year of Lyceum elections are held.

Elections in primary schools

They are held every September. All the students are obliged to elect 2 presidiums for each class who "rule" until January when the other one succeeds the first. The role of these presidiums is to primp the classrooms for the national holidays and for Christmas. Furthermore, they transfer the complaints of each student to the school authorities.

There are 4 positions:

  • The President
  • The Vice-President
  • The General Secretary
  • The Treasurer

Elections in Gymnasiums and Lyceums

They are held every September and are divided into 2 parts.

In the 1st part every student elects the Presidium of his/her class.

The Class Presidium has 5 members:

  • The President
  • The General Secretary
  • The Treasurer
  • The 1st Member
  • The 2nd Member

In the second part students elect a School Council which has 15 members and represents the students. Its role is extremely important in every school because the School Council takes significant decisions for all the students.

The School Council has 15 members:

  • The School President
  • The Vice-President
  • The Treasurer
  • Another 12 Members

Tertiary education in Greece

View of the Ionian Academy, Corfu
  • Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - Α.E.I. (Higher Educational Institutes)

Higher Educational Institutes are consisted of two parallel sectors: the Technological Universities (T.E.I.) and the Universities. In addition, colleges collaborating with foreign universities can offer undergraduate and postgraduate UK foreign programmes of study in Greece, under the proper registration with the Greek Ministry of Education. Usually, these programmes are provided following franchise or validation agreements with universities established in other European Union countries, primarily in the UK, leading to degrees which are awarded directly by those universities. In some cases these institutions are wholly owned and operated branch campuses of foreign institutions, as in the case of the University of Indianapolis, Athens Campus. List of universities in Greece

According to the European University Association, austerity measures imposed after the 2010 bailout halved public funding for higher education in real terms between 2009 and 2014; Greece now spends an average of €545 per student.[1] Spending cuts were such that eight Greek universities, including the University of Athens, had to close down temporarily in fall 2013 because they lacked the staff to keep the university running.[2]

Prospective students do not have to take entrance exams in Greece. Admission is based on one’s high school results. [3]

Private education

All levels are overseen by the Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs, which exercises centralised control over public schools, by prescribing the curriculum, appointing staff, and controlling funding. The ministry exercises a supervisory mandate over private schools. At a regional level, the supervisory role of the Ministry is exercised through Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education, and Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education operate in every Prefecture. Tertiary institutions are nominally autonomous, but the Ministry is responsible for their funding, and the distribution of students to undergraduate courses. Currently the Greek government only recognises degree programmes offered by the state-run universities although there are several private universities and colleges offering degree programmes that are validated and overseen by American, British and other European universities. The Greek government is pressured to recognise these overseas programmes.

All levels of education are catered for by both private and public schools. State-run schools and universities do not charge tuition fees and textbooks are provided free to all students, although, from 2011 onwards, there has been noticed a shortage in new textbooks, forcing students to either buy stock books from bookshops, or participate in parent-teacher association-run book trades.

There are also a number of private tutors schools, colleges and universities operating alongside the state education and providing supplementary tuition. These parallel schools, called Frontistirio (Greek: φροντιστήριο) provide foreign-language tuition, supplementary lessons for weak students, as well as exam preparation for the competitive Panhellenic national examinations. Most of the students typically attend such classes (and examinations) at the tutors schools in the afternoon and evening in addition to their normal schooling.

Vocational education and training

Obsolete institutions

  • Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Εκπαιδευτήριο, ΤΕΕ (Techniko Epagelmatiko Ekpedeftirio - Technical Professional/Vocational School, TEE)
  • Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο, ΤΕΛ (Techniko Epagelmatiko Lykeio - Technical Professional/Vocational Lyceum, TEL)
  • Τεχνική Επαγγελματική Σχολή, ΤΕΣ (Techniki Epagelmatiki Scholi - Technical Professional/Vocational School, TES)
  • Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο, ΕΠΛ (Eniaio Polykladiko Lykeio - Unified Multidisciplinary Lyceum, EPL)

Current issues

The foremost topic of debate in recent years has been recognition of the private universities, which are forbidden by the 1975 constitution. Numerous private institutions, which are often franchises of European and American universities, such as State University of New York, but also non-profit accredited institutions or wholly owned and operated branch campuses of foreign universities, such as the University of Indianapolis - Athens Campus, are operating legally as EES schools (translatable as "Laboratories of Free Study").

Moreover, with few exceptions, the Greek government refuses to recognize three-year university degrees. Students who completed a bachelor's degree in a foreign country find it difficult to secure employment in the public sector, unless they next obtain a master's degree, in which case their academic qualifications are considered equivalent to a four-year undergraduate degree conferred by a Greek higher educational institute.

Following pressure from the EU member states, within the framework of the Bologna Process, Greece is revising its classification of degrees to bring it in line with the framework defined in the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System/ECTS. (It is usually the goal to accomplish a bachelor's degree within 3 years and a master's degree within 2 years.)

Criticism

There exists a widespread disapproval of the Greek Education System.

Many claim that the System does little to help students explore and develop their abilities so that they can make use of them in life.

Another important issue, which is often a cause of disturbance in many Greek families, is the existence of after-school paid private classes/institutes named frontistiria (φροντιστήρια). Attending those has essentially become a necessity in order for Greek students to be able to achieve high grades and succeed in their exams. Their existence, if not ubiquitous existence, undermines the public educational system and renders school attendance and studying for school secondary obligations, as opposed to the priority and main role of the frontistiria in exam preparation. This phenomenon is noticed especially as the student approaches twelfth grade, the senior year of high school, because of the increased difficulty and competitiveness of the university entrance exams, the Panhellenic Examinations. This has also been an object of criticism due to the high fees that most Greek families are called to pay to afford the frontistiria or private lessons, thus deviating from the concept of a free and accessible education for everyone.[4] Furthermore, in 2012 the Greek government introduced a regulation that changed the process for the selection of students who wished to be registered in the Experimental Schools. Before 2012, those students were picked from a draw, whereas the new regulation established a system of entrance exams for Experimental Schools. This would take place in the 1st grade of lower and upper high school that the students had to pass in order to be selected. This incident reinforced the presence of frontistiria, as some parents urged their children's attendance of private classes, even while at primary school age, so as to prepare them for the entrance exams. The regulation also renamed the Experimental Schools to Exemplar Experimental Schools.

Overall, the Panhellenic Examinations' system, which essentially determines the students' future, is the main controversy within this context. People often pronounce upon the exams, claiming that the exam questions' difficulty changes from year to year or pointing out mistakes on their wording that can justifiably cause confusion to the students. Harder exams at a year often result in lower numbers of students succeeding in their desired department of 3rd grade education.

Greece' education has ranked last in the EU according to a 2014 survey conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit [5] and shown poor performance at all three subjects of the 2015 PISA contest.[6]

See also

  • Education in ancient Greece
  • Open access in Greece to scholarly communication
  • Education Research Centre - Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, The Greek Education System. Facts and Figures (Supervision: Prof. V. Koulaidis. Compiled by C. Papakyriakopoulos, A. Patouna, A. Katsis & S. Georgiadou), Athens, 2003. (ISBN 960-541-106-7)
    • (in Greek) Κέντρο Εκπαιδευτικής Έρευνας, Το Ελληνικό Εκπαιδευτικό Σύστημα Συνοπτική εικόνα σε αριθμούς, Αθήνα, 2003. (ISBN 960-541-108-3) [1] (accessed June 1, 2006)
  • Greek Educational System: The Implementation of the ICT in the Greek Curriculum in Compulsory Education, IACM/FORTH, November 2003 [2]
  • National report of Greece 2009 - Bologna Process: http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/links/Greece.htm

References

External links

Education In Greece

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