Greeks in Germany

Greeks in Germany
Staatsangehörigkeit Griechenland in Deutschland.png
Distribution of Greek nationals in Germany
Total population
2016, Greek Ethnic Origin 443,000
2016, Greek Citizens 348,475
2016, Born in Greece 274,060
2016, Born in Germany 74,415
Regions with significant populations
Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, Munich, Stuttgart Metropolitan Region
Languages
German, Greek
Religion
Predominantly Greek Orthodox Church

The Greeks in Germany form a significant community with a population of roughly 348,475 people having Greek Citizenship according to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, on December 31, 2016. Some 274,060 of these were born in Greece and 74,415 were born in Germany.[1]. About 443,000 people of Greek ethnic origin are estimated to live in Germany according to the 2016 Statistical Yearbook.[2]. The number varies significantly in other estimations, as the Federal Foreign Office of Germany gives an estimated population of 320,000 people,[3] while the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece steps it up to 380,000.[4].


History

Significant immigration from Greece to Germany started around 1700, when the Ottoman Empire opened its borders. The first community was found in Leipzig at this time.

The second wave of immigration was when Otto of Wittelbach became King of Greece as Otto of Greece. Many Greeks came as students to Bavaria.

The Greek population of today came mostly after World War II. West Germany needed employees for their expanding industry. In East Germany, Greek communists came as political refugees until 1973.

Many Greeks were relocated to German Democratic Republic during the Greek Civil War.

Education

The first Greek schools were created because of the number of Greeks immigrating over to Germany. Since the first Greek school built in 1960 and up until 1990, over 1 million Greeks had immigrated to Germany. About 800,000 of those Greeks had after either a long-term or a short term stay had gone back to Greece. Nowadays, every fifth of an estimated 47,000 students of Greek origin attends one of 35 Greek schools in Germany.

The Greek are a successful minority. Second-generation Greek students were more likely to attend a Gymnasium (college preparatory school) than their ethnic German counterparts.[5]

Demographics

The first Greeks came during the time of the Roman Empire to Central Europe. Among the major German cities Offenbach am Main and Stuttgart had the highest share of Greek migrants in 2011 according to German Census data. [6] Munich was home to the largest Greek community in Germany.

Early Greek workers in Germany, in 1956
The place where the Griechenhaus stood, a court of Greek merchants in Leipzig
The Greek Salvator church in Munich
This Greek tavern was founded 1882 in Neckargemuend near Heidelberg
Greeks in Germany by Nationality[7]
Year Pop. ±%
1967 200,951 —    
1968 211,764 +5.4%
1969 271,313 +28.1%
1970 342,891 +26.4%
1971 354,949 +3.5%
1972 389,426 +9.7%
1973 407,614 +4.7%
1974 406,394 −0.3%
1975 390,455 −3.9%
1976 353,733 −9.4%
1977 328,465 −7.1%
1978 305,523 −7.0%
1979 296,803 −2.9%
1980 297,518 +0.2%
1981 299,300 +0.6%
1982 300,824 +0.5%
1983 292,349 −2.8%
1984 287,099 −1.8%
1985 280,614 −2.3%
1986 278,506 −0.8%
1987 256,396 −7.9%
1988 274,793 +7.2%
1989 293,649 +6.9%
1990 320,181 +9.0%
1991 336,893 +5.2%
1992 345,902 +2.7%
1993 351,976 +1.8%
1994 355,583 +1.0%
1995 359,556 +1.1%
1996 362,539 +0.8%
1997 363,202 +0.2%
1998 363,514 +0.1%
1999 364,354 +0.2%
2000 365,438 +0.3%
2001 362,708 −0.7%
2002 359,361 −0.9%
2003 354,630 −1.3%
2004 315,989 −10.9%
2005 309,794 −2.0%
2006 303,761 −1.9%
2007 294,891 −2.9%
2008 287,187 −2.6%
2009 278,063 −3.2%
2010 276,685 −0.5%
2011 283,684 +2.5%
2012 298,254 +5.1%
2013 316,331 +6.1%
2014 328,564 +3.9%
2015 339,931 +3.5%
2016 348,475 +2.5%

Greek Muslims

There are some members of the Muslim minority of Greece among the some 350,000 Greeks living in Germany who are ethnic Turks or who espouse a Turkish identity.[8] The majority of Turks immigrated from Western Thrace.[9] In the 1960s and 1970s, the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income. This resulted in many Muslims leaving their homes and immigrating to Germany with estimates suggesting that today there are now between 12,000[10] and 25,000[11] residing in Germany.

Notable people

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Clogg, Richard (2002). Minorities in Greece: Aspects of a Plural Society. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-705-X. .
  • Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly (2007). Parliamentary Assembly: Working Papers 2007 Ordinary Session 22–26 January 2007. Council of Europe. ISBN 92-871-6191-7. .
  • Westerlund, David; Svanberg, Ingvar (1999). Islam Outside the Arab World. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-22691-8. .

Further reading

Greeks In Germany

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